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American Indian/First Nations Schooling: From the Colonial by Charles L. Glenn (auth.)

By Charles L. Glenn (auth.)

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Additional info for American Indian/First Nations Schooling: From the Colonial Period to the Present

Sample text

Wheelock founded, in 1754, a little boarding school in Lebanon, Connecticut, intended to remove Indian children from “the pernicious influence of Indian examples,” a theme that we will see repeated again throughout the nineteenth and into the twentieth century in support of the residential school as the best form of education for Indians. As was often the case with later residential schools, the promoters were disappointed that, on return to their peoples, the graduates commonly reverted to the patterns of Indian life rather than serving as models for the transformation of their tribes.

Meanwhile, the number of black slaves owned by about 10 percent of the Cherokee families increased, in 1860, to between 3,500 and 4,000, giving the mixed-blood elite (about one-third of whom owned slaves) a strong incentive to side with the Confederacy in the Civil War . . 29 This internal division reinforced that based upon acculturation to white society and use of English on the part of the mixed-bloods. Other “civilized nations” relied more upon missionary management, though funding their schools by the same methods that the Cherokees used.

39 In recent years, however, Indians The “Five Civilized Nations” ● 47 in Oklahoma have performed significantly better than those in Arizona and New Mexico on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, presumably reflecting their much longer intergenerational experience of schooling and literacy. On the other hand, the National Study of American Indian Education, completed in 1971, included a survey of different groups of Indians who were asked whether they rated “Indian Culture” or “White Culture” more highly.

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