By Daniel C. Snell
A spouse to the traditional close to East deals scholars and normal readers a complete evaluate of close to jap civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice.
- Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
- Places specific emphasis on social and cultural background
- Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and sleek worlds
- Provides an invaluable bibliographical advisor to this box of study
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Extra info for A Companion to the Ancient Near East
Distribution maps of wild progenitors of domestic species have been updated with this genetic profiling. These studies are complicated by modern agricultural practices and the possibility of relatively recent genetic change within the wild populations (Harlan and Zohary 1966; Heun et al. 1997), but homogeneities found have led to the conclusion that there was a core zone within which grain and legume domestication took place. Accumulation of evidence for einkorn and emmer wheats points toward a southeastern Turkey or northern Syria origin for domestication (Nesbitt and Samuel 1998; Willcox 1999; Lev-Yadun, Gopher, and Abbo 2000; ¨ zkan et al.
This culminated in an external shock, the invasion of the ‘‘Sea Peoples’’ at the beginning of the twelfth century. The invaders of Mediterranean origin destroyed the Aegean, Anatolian, and Levantine coastal cities, and reached the Egyptian Delta about 1180. A few years later the Phrygian invaders in central Anatolia, where the Hittite kingdom collapsed completely, reached the Upper Tigris area. A parallel movement took place on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, where the Libyan tribes moved from the Sahara region to invade the Nile valley.
In spite of various expeditions carried on in Subartu (Upper Mesopotamia) and on the Zagros piedmont, and in spite of the ‘‘Martu-wall’’ erected from Tigris to Euphrates in order to stop, or at least to check, the infiltration of the West Semitic nomads, the Martu finally succeeded in penetrating in substantial number into Mesopotamia, possibly driven out of their homeland in the Syrian steppe by an unfavorable climatic change. The Martu conquered and ravaged all the provinces, and Ur was left without revenues and protection.